9721093 Slovene Freising manuscripts. 1000 Old East Slavic novgorod Codex. 1000 Basque, aragonese and Spanish Glosas Emilianenses. 1028 Catalan Jurament feudal. 1050 Middle high German by convention. 1066 Middle English by convention 11th century mozarabic kharjas appended to Arabic and Hebrew poems 84 Isolated words are found in glossaries from the 8th century. 1100 Croatian baška tablet.
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804 javanese initial part of warming the sukabumi inscription 74 9th century malayalam Rajasekhara inscription at vazhappally maha siva temple ramacaritam (12th century) is the oldest literary work. 9th century Old Welsh Cadfan Stone (Tywyn 2). 842 Old French Oaths of Strasbourg. 862 Old Church Slavonic religious literature translated by cyril and Methodius developed in the Preslav literary School and Ohrid Literary School, the two major cultural centres of the bulgarian Empire. 882 Balinese dated royal inscription. 900 Old Occitan Tomida femina. 959974 leonese nodicia de kesos. 960963 Italian Placiti cassinesi 77 The veronese riddle (c. 800) is considered a mixture of Italian and Latin. 986 Khitan Memorial for Yelü yanning late 10th century konkani / Marathi inscription on Bahubali statue at Shravanabelagola inscription on Bahubali statue at Shravanabelagola are in devanagari script, but the language has been in dispute between Marathi and Konkani scholars. Ad this list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding.
711712 Japanese poems in the kojiki. 732 Old Turkic Orkhon inscriptions. 750 Old Irish Würzburg glosses 70 Primitive irish Ogham inscriptions from the 4th century consist of personal names, patronymics and/or clan names. 750900 Old Frisian Westeremden resume yew-stick. 769 Old Hindi dohakosh by saraha late 8th century Breton Praecepta medica (Leyden, codex Vossianus Lat. 96 A) 73 A botanical manuscript in Latin and Breton. 800 Old Norse runic inscriptions.
591 Korean Sinseong stele in Namsan (gyeongju) 65. 611 resumes Khmer Angkor Borei inscription. 650 Tibetan Tibetan Annals. 650700 Old Udi sinai palimpsest M13. 683 Old Malay kedukan bukit Inscription 7th century tumshuqese and Khotanese saka manuscripts mainly from Dunhuang 67 writers Some fragments of Khotanese saka have been dated to the 5th and 6th centuries 7th century beja ostracon from Saqqara 68 69 late 7th century pyu hpayahtaung funeral. 700 Old English runic inscription on the Franks Casket The Undley bracteate (5th century) and West Heslerton brooch (c. 650) have fragmentary runic inscriptions.
430 georgian Bir El Qutt inscriptions. 450 Kannada halmidi inscription kavirajamarga (c. 850) is the oldest literary work. 500 Armenian Inscription at the tekor Basilica 61 saint Mesrob Mashtots is traditionally held to have translated an Armenian Bible in 434. 510 Old Dutch Formula for freeing a serf in the malbergse Glossen on the salic law 62 A word in the mid-5th century bergakker inscription yields the oldest evidence of Dutch morphology, but there is no consensus on the interpretation of the rest of the. 62 6th century tocharian manuscripts from Kucha, karasahr and Dunhuang 63 Some tocharian names and words have been found in Prakrit documents from Krorän dated. Second half of 6th century Old High German Pforzen buckle. 575 Telugu Erragudipadu inscription Telugu place names are found in Prakrit inscriptions from the 2nd century.
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Thus, Old Armenian is first attested in the Armenian Bible translation. The vimose inscriptions (2nd and 3rd centuries) in the Elder Futhark runic alphabet appear to record Proto-norse names. Some scholars interpret the negau helmet inscription (c. 100 BC) as a germanic fragment. 150 Bactrian Rabatak inscription.
200 Proto-norse Inscription nithijo tawide on shield grip from the Illerup send Ådal weapon deposit A single word in Proto-norse language is found on the øvre Stabu spearhead dated to the second half of the 2nd century. 292 mayan Stela 29 from tikal 53 A brief undeciphered inscription at San Bartolo is dated to the 3rd century. 312313 Sogdian Ancient Letters, found near Dunhuang. 328 Arabic Namara inscription. 350 ge'ez inscriptions of ezana of Aksum. 350 Cham Đông Yên Châu inscription found near Tra kiêu 57 4th century gothic Gothic Bible, translated by wulfila 58 A few problematic Gothic runic inscriptions may date to the early 4th century.
1200 bc old Chinese Oracle bone and bronze inscriptions from the reign of wu ding 26 seal impression from the tomb of Seth-Peribsen, containing the oldest known complete sentence in Egyptian,. 2690 bc letter in Sumerian cuneiform sent by the high-priest lu'enna, informing him the king of Lagash of his son's death in battle,. 2400 bc greek linear B tablet from Pylos, recording the distribution of hides,. 1200 bc ox scapula inscribed with three records of divinations in the reign of wu ding of the Chinese Shang dynasty,. 1200 bc first millennium bc the Ahiram epitaph is the earliest substantial inscription in Phoenician. The earliest known alphabetic inscriptions, at Serabit el-Khadim (c.
1500 bc appear to record a northwest Semitic language, though only one or two words have been deciphered. In the early Iron Age, alphabetic writing spread across the near East and southern Europe. With the emergence of the Brahmic family of scripts, languages of India are attested from after about 300. There is only fragmentary evidence for languages such as Iberian, tartessian, galatian, thracian and Messapian. The north Picene language of the novilara Stele from. 600 bc has not been deciphered. The earliest examples of the central American Isthmian script date from. 500 bc, but a proposed decipherment remains controversial. 29 First millennium ad from Late Antiquity, we have for the first time languages with earliest records in manuscript tradition (as opposed to epigraphy ).
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2250 bc biography elamite Awan dynasty peace treaty with Naram-Sin 13 14 21st century bc hurrian Temple inscription of Tish-atal in Urkesh. 1700 bc hittite Anitta text in Hittite cuneiform 16 Isolated Hittite words and names occur in Assyrian texts found at Kültepe, from the 19th century. 16th century bc palaic Hittite texts cth. 1450 bc mycenaean Greek linear B tablet archive from Knossos 18 20 These are mostly administrative lists, with some complete sentences. 1400 bc luwian hieroglyphic Luwian monumental inscriptions, cuneiform Luwian tablets in the hattusa archives Isolated hieroglyphs appear on seals from the 18th century. 1400 bc hattic Hittite texts cth 725745. 1300 bc ugaritic Tablets from Ugarit 23 see ugaritic alphabet.
and the rise of alphabetic writing : In East Asia towards the end of the second millennium bc, the sino-tibetan family was represented by Old Chinese. There are also a number of undeciphered Bronze age records: Earlier symbols, such as the jiahu symbols, vinča symbols and the marks on the dispilio tablet, are believed to be proto-writing, rather than representations of language. Date language Attestation Notes. 2690 bc egyptian Egyptian hieroglyphs in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen ( 2nd Dynasty umm el-qa'ab 6 "proto-hieroglyphic" inscriptions from about 3300 bc ( Naqada iii ; see abydos, Egypt, narmer Palette ) 26th century bc sumerian Instructions of Shuruppak, the kesh temple hymn and other cuneiform texts. 2400 bc akkadian A few dozen pre-sargonic texts from Mari and other sites in northern Babylonia 9 Some proper names attested in Sumerian texts at Tell Harmal from about 2800. 10 Fragments of the legend of Etana at Tell Harmal. 2400 bc eblaite Ebla tablets.
1500 bc, 1 while the oldest known manuscript dates to the 11th century ad, a gap of over 2,500 years. Similarly the oldest, avestan texts, the, gathas, are believed to have been composed before 1000 bc, but the oldest avestan manuscripts date from the 13th century. Because for of the way languages change gradually, it is usually impossible to pinpoint when a given language began to be spoken. In many cases, some form of the language had already been spoken (and even written) considerably earlier than the dates of the earliest extant samples provided here. For languages that have developed out of a known predecessor, dates provided here are subject to conventional terminology. For example, old French developed gradually out of, vulgar Latin, and the, oaths of Strasbourg (842) listed are the earliest text that is classified as "Old French". Swedish separated from common, old East Norse in the 12th century, while, norwegian separated from. Old West Norse around 1300.
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This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language. It does not include undeciphered scripts, garden though there are various claims without wide acceptance, which, if substantiated, would push backward the first attestation of certain languages. It also does not include inscriptions consisting of isolated words or names from a language. A written record may encode a stage of a language corresponding to an earlier time, either as a result of oral tradition, or because the earliest source is a copy of an older manuscript that was lost. An oral tradition of epic poetry may typically bridge a few centuries, and in rare cases, over a millennium. An extreme case is the. Vedic Sanskrit of the, rigveda : the earliest parts of this text may date.