G., / dōng "east which represents a sun rising in the trees. xíngshēng : Phonetic complexes, in which one part—often called the radical —indicates the general semantic category of the character (such as water-related or eye-related and the other part is another character, used for its phonetic value. Example: qíng "clear/fair (weather which is composed of rì "sun and qīng "blue/green which is used for its pronunciation. In contrast to the popular conception of Chinese as a primarily pictographic or ideographic language, the vast majority of Chinese characters (about 95 of the characters in the Shuowen jiezi ) are constructed as either logical aggregates or, more often, phonetic complexes. In fact, some phonetic complexes were originally simple pictographs that were later augmented by the addition of a semantic root. An example is zhù "candle" (now archaic, meaning "lampwick which was originally a pictograph, a character that is now pronounced zhǔ and means "host or The character huǒ "fire" was added to indicate that the meaning is fire-related. The last two principles do not produce new written forms Instead, they transfer new meanings to existing forms: / zhuǎnzhù : Transference, in which a character, often with a simple, concrete meaning takes on an extended, more abstract meaning. Example: / wǎng "net which was originally a pictograph depicting a fishing net.
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Since xu shen did not have access to Chinese characters in their earliest forms, his analysis cannot always be taken as authoritative. Nonetheless, no later work has supplanted the Shuowen jiezi in terms of breadth, and it is still relevant to etymological research today. Derivation of characters edit main article: Chinese character classification According to the Shuowen jiezi, chinese characters are developed on six basic principles. (These principles, though popularized by the Shuowen jiezi, were developed earlier; the oldest known mention of them is in the rites of Zhou, a text from about 150. 18 ) The first two principles produce simple characters, known as wén : xiàngxíng : Pictographs, in which the character is a graphical depiction of the object it denotes. Examples: rén "person rì "sun mù "tree/wood". zhǐshì : Indicatives, or ideographs, in which the character represents an abstract notion. Examples: shàng "up xià "down sān "three". The remaining four principles produce complex characters historically called zì (although this term is now generally used to refer to all characters, whether simple or complex). Of these four, two construct characters from simpler parts: / huìyì : Logical aggregates, in which two or more parts are used for their meaning. This yields improve a composite meaning, which is then applied to the new character.
As the varieties of Chinese diverged, a situation of diglossia developed, with speakers of mutually unintelligible varieties able to communicate through writing using. In the early 20th century, classical Chinese was replaced in this role by written vernacular Chinese, corresponding to the standard spoken language mandarin. Although most other varieties of Chinese are not written, there are traditions of written Cantonese, written Shanghainese and written hokkien, among others. Some Chinese characters have been adopted into writing systems of other neighbouring East Asian languages, but are currently used only in Japanese and Korean, as vietnamese is now written using alphabetic script. 13 Contents Structure edit Written Chinese is not based on an alphabet or a compact syllabary. Instead, Chinese characters are glyphs whose components may depict objects or represent abstract notions. Occasionally a character consists of only one component; more commonly two or more components are combined to form more complex characters, using a variety of different principles. The best known exposition of Chinese character composition is the Shuowen jiezi, compiled by xu shen around 120.
The characters themselves are often composed of parts that may represent physical objects, abstract notions, or pronunciation. Literacy requires the memorization of a qualitative great many characters: educated Chinese know about 4,000. The large number of Chinese characters has in part led to the adoption of Western alphabets as an auxiliary means of representing Chinese. Various current Chinese characters have been traced back to the late. Shang Dynasty about bc, 6 7 8 but the process of creating characters is thought to have begun some centuries earlier. After a period of variation and evolution, Chinese characters were standardized under the. Qin Dynasty (221206 BC). Over the millennia, these characters have evolved into well-developed styles.
Org/LearnGreek/ (Modern/Ancient) m (Modern) eece. Org/gr-lessons/ (Modern) /filog/ (Modern) (Modern) m/ (Modern) p (Modern) (Modern) m/greek/ (Modern) m/blog/ (Modern) p (Modern) m/ (Modern) (New Testament) rkeley. Edu/ancgreek/ (Ancient) m (Ancient) Ask Greek - the place to ask questions about the Greek language m/ask-greek/ learn Greek online via skype m/ - learn Greek online with Greekpod101 - learn Greek with Glossika - greek electronic talking dictionaries - greek learning software more Greek. Omniglot is how I make my living. Written Chinese chinese : ; pinyin : zhōngwén ) comprises, chinese characters pinyin: Hànzì, literally han characters used to represent the. Chinese characters do not constitute an alphabet or a compact syllabary. Rather, the writing system is roughly logosyllabic ; that is, a character generally represents one syllable of spoken Chinese and may be a word on its own or a part of a polysyllabic word.
Writing the English, alphabet, hubPages
Μπ mb in the towns middle of words; b at the beginning. Γ γκ ŋg in the middle of words; g at the beginning, unless followed by i or e, when they are ŋɟ in the middle of words and ɟ at the beginning. A dieresis is used to indicate that vowels are pronounced separately,. However, when the first of the two letters is stressed, the dieresis sign is not necessary,. Γάιδαρος γáiðaros When κ, π, τ, ξ, ψ and τ sigma: are preceded by a word that ends in ν they become voiced and the final N turns into the corresponding nasal sound,.
Τον πατέρα tombatéra download Greek alphabet charts in Excel, word or pdf format Sample text in Greek transliteration Óli i ánthropi yeniúnde eléftheri ke ísi stin aksioprépia ke ta dhikeómata. Íne prikizméni me loyikí ke sinídhisi, ke ofílun na simberiféronde metaksí tus me pnévma adhelfosínis. A recording of this text by eυτυχία παναγιώτου (Eftychia panayiotou) Another recording of this text by χρήστος παπαδόπουλος (Christos Papadopoulos) Sample text in Polytonic Greek sample text in handwritten Greek font from: Translation All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) Corrections and notes on pronunciation provided by δημήτρης χριστούλιας (Dimitris Christoulias) Sample videos in Greek links Information about the Greek language m m Information about Greek numbering systems ml m/ numerals/m Online Greek lessons pros.
This system was used until the first century. The Acrophonic system was replaced by an alphabetic system that assigned numerical values to all the letters of the alphabet. Three obsolete letters, stigma, koppa and sampi, were used in addition to the standard Greek letters, and a apostrophe-like numeral sign was used to indicate that letters were being used as numerals. Greek alphabet (Modern pronunciation) hear the modern Greek alphabet hear a recording of the Greek alphabet by vasiliki baskos of m hear a recording of Modern Greek pronunciation by vasiliki baskos of m Greek alphabet learning game notes γ gamma before back vowels a,. Before front vowels e, i, it is pronounced ʝ and transliterated y Κ k before back vowels a, o, u, and c before front vowels e, i λ ʎ before an unstressed i followed by another vowel,.
Λιώμα ʎóma ν ɲ before an unstressed i followed by another vowel,. Νιώθω ɲóθo when the sound i is preceded by a voiced consonant and followed by another vowel, it becomes ʝ,. When it is preceded by a voiceless consonant and followed by another vowel it is pronounced as ç,. In both cases it is not stressed. Σ z before voiced consonants χ χ before back vowels a, o, u, and ç before front vowels e, i notes αυ av before vowels and voiced consonants; af elsewhere. Ευ ev before vowels and voiced consonants; ef elsewhere. Ηυ iv before vowels and voiced consonants; if elsewhere. Ντ nd in the middle of words; d at the beginning.
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In 1982 the diacritics representing breathings, which were not widely used after 1976, were officially abolished by presidential decree. The letter sigma has a special form which is used when it appears at the end of a word. Used to write: Arvanitic, cypriot Arabic, greek, griko, tsakonian Ancient Greek alphabet This alphabet is based on inscriptions from Crete dated to about 800. Greek was written mainly from right to left in horizontal lines at this time. It is uncertain what names were given to the letters, and some letters had more than one form. Source: ml Greek alphabet (Classical Attic pronunciation) Note σ z before voiced consonants hear the Classical Greek alphabet Archaic letters Greek numerals and other symbols The Ancient Greeks had two numeric systems: the Acrophonic or Attic system used the letters iota, delta, gamma, eta,. These letters were used as they represented the first letters of the number analysis names, with the exception of iota: γ έντε (gente) for 5, which became πέντε (pente δ έκα (deka) for 10, Η κατόν (Hektaton) for 100, χ ίλιοι (Khilioi) for 1,000 and.
The capital letters of the modern Greek alphabet are almost identical to those of the ionic alphabet. The minuscule or lower case essay letters first appeared sometime after 800 ad and developed from the byzantine minuscule script, which developed from cursive writing. Today the Greek alphabet is used only to write Greek, however at various times in the past it has been used to write such languages as Lydian, Phrygian, Thracian, gaulish, hebrew, Arabic, Old Ossetic, Albanian, turkish, Aromanian, gagauz, surguch and Urum. Notable features, type of writing system: alphabet - the first one to include vowels. Direction of writing: Originally written horizontal lines either from right to left or alternating from right to left and left to right (boustrophedon/ βουστροφηδόν ). Around 500 bc the direction of writing changed to horizontal lines running from left to right. Diacritics to represent stress and breathings were added to the alphabet in around 200.
language of Cyprus, officially recognized as a minority language in parts of Italy, and in Albania, armenia, romania and Ukraine. At first, there were a number of different versions of the alphabet used in various different Greek cities. These local alphabets, known as epichoric, can be divided into three groups: green, blue and red. The blue group developed into the modern Greek alphabet, while the red group developed into the. Etruscan alphabet, other alphabets of ancient Italy and eventually the, latin alphabet. By the early 4th century bc, the epichoric alphabets were replaced by the eastern Ionic alphabet.
It was developed from the. Canaanite/Phoenician alphabet and writers the order and names of the letters are derived from Phoenician. The original Canaanite meanings of the letter names was lost when the alphabet was adapted for Greek. For example, alpha comes for the canaanite aleph (ox) and beta from beth (house). When the Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet to write their language they used five of the Phoenician consonants to represent vowel sounds: yodh j became Ι (iota waw w became υ (upsilon 'aleph ʔ became Α alpha 'ayin ʕ became ο (omicron and. New letters were also devised: Φ (phi χ (chi) and Ψ (psi). The result was the world's first fully phonemic alphabet which represented by consonant and vowel sounds. Greek at a glance, native name : εληνικά (elinika linguistic affliation : Indo-european, hellenic.
Greek alphabet, history, definition, & Facts
Greek belongs to the hellenic branch of the Indo-european language family, and is spoken by about 13 million people mainly in Greece and Cyprus, where it is an official language. Greek is also recognised as a minority language in parts of Italy, and in Albania, armenia, romania and Ukraine. Greek was first written in Mycenae with a script known. Linear b, which was used between about. This variety of Greek is known as Mycenaean. On Crete another script, known as the. Cypriot syllabary, was used to write short the local variety of Greek between about 1200 and 300. The Greek alphabet has been in continuous use since about 750.